Identification of mutations in the KRAS gene, an oncogene whose mutations have the potential to turn normal cells into malignant cells. The analysis reflects genetic changes – gene mutations – that are characteristic of colorectal cancer. Ras elisa kit is a well-known medicine related to RAS gene.
One of the most important somatic mutations found in colorectal tumors is a mutation in the KRAS gene (found with a frequency of 30% to 50%). Patients with CRC need to have their KRAS mutation status determined, which plays an important role in terms of further targeted treatment strategy.
All forms of cancer associated with the Ras gene are aggressive, proliferate rapidly, and are difficult to treat. Mutations of this gene accompany 20-25% of cases of various types of cancer.
The possibility of using somatic mutations in the K-ras oncogene for diagnostic purposes is due to their high frequency in tumors of different localizations, the small size of the gene, in which, as a rule, the mutation is localized in a specific codon. At the same time, K-ras mutations are registered in pancreatic and colorectal cancers, polyps, and small colorectal adenomas, which allows us to consider them as promising markers for early diagnosis of these neoplasias.
KRAS mutations are detected in 35-45% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. To date, more than 3,000 point mutations of the gene have been described in tumor cells. Approximately 82% and 17% of all described KRAS mutations are found in codons 12 and 13, respectively. Analysis of clinical data shows that only 3% of patients with CRC with a KRAS mutation in tumor cells respond to anti-EGFR MKAT treatment, while in patients whose tumors express the normal (wild-type) gene, this figure reaches 33%. For this reason, determining the mutational status of the KRAS gene in CRC patients is key to planning and predicting response to panitumumumab and cetuximab targeted therapies.
The efficacy of treatment of colorectal cancer with modern drugs depends on the presence of mutations in the KRAS oncogene and some other factors. In the absence of mutations in the KRAS gene, the effectiveness of treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer is very high – the average life expectancy of a patient increases by 1-2 years, the number of recurrences decreases.
At the same time, in the presence of activating mutations in the KRAS gene in the patient’s tumor cells, the use of Erbitux or Vectibix does not lead to positive results in RCC.
For this reason, the American Society of Clinical Oncologists and the European Medical Agency recommend the use of drugs only for the treatment of tumors containing the wild-type KRAS gene (i.e., without mutations).
The presence of KRAS activating mutations in tumors is a contraindication for the use of EGFR inhibitor drugs.